Basically, Artificial Intelligence (AI) has emerged from research laboratories as a title for technology, for a variety of reasons of interest in computer science. In many developing societies , AI is considered a technological and commercial possibility to improve their security and competitive positions in the global economic system. In other areas, in particular the academic field, AI provides the ability to capture and utilize knowledge as a key resource to cope with relatively challenging problems
Some authoritative definitions attempting for AI are summarized as follows :
."Artificial Intelligence is the science of making machines do things that would require intelligence if done by men" is the definition offered by Marvin Minsky, a pioneer of AI and Professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).
."The field of AI has its main tenet that there are indeed common processes that underlie thinking and perceiving, and furthermore that these processes can be understood and studied scientifically. As to who is doing the thinking or perceiving - man or computer, this is an implementation detail". This is another way in which AI has been succinctly described by Nils Nelson, Chairman Department of Computer Science at Stanford University, California, USA.
A simple and working definition would be that AI provided powerful problem-solving techniques, in particular to imitate human-like decision making.
There are various offspring of AI, which are now emerging and are available for human use, simulation the potentials of activity under human control. The one offspring of AI technology which cause tremendous impact on the society is the technology known as "Expert System".
Better than conventional knowledge in that it can do previously unprogramable tasks Can do uncertainty handling Makes knowledge explicit Can make consistency check of knowledge Can make judicious use of available information Can employ heuristic decision making mechanism Can produce the path of reasoning Can check completeness Can request more information if necessary Can increase programmer productivity
1. Winston and Prendegest, "The AI Business", MIT Press (1985).
2. Alex Goodal "The Guide to Expert Systems", Learned Information Oxford and New Jersey (1985).